GoGo Shoes 300 14 Shoes Size Size 14 300 GoGo 4xzIHMq

Advertisement

Journal of Electronic Materials

, Volume 41, Issue 7, pp 1898–1906 | Cite as

GoGo Shoes 300 14 Shoes Size Size 14 300 GoGo 4xzIHMq

GoGo 14 Shoes 300 14 GoGo Shoes Size 300 Size
  • F. Wafula
  • L. Yin
  • P. Borgesen
  • D. Andala
  • N. Dimitrov
  • F. Wafula
    • 1
  • L. Yin
    • 2
  • P. Borgesen
    • 3
  • D. Andala
    • 4
  • N. Dimitrov
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryState University of New York at BinghamtonBinghamtonUSA
  2. 2.Advanced Research on Electronics Assembly, ConsortiumUniversal Instruments CorporationConklinComfort Anthracite Savana Sneakers Kinetic Wolky Leather YqxzSSUSA
  3. 3.Department of Systems Science and Industrial EngineeringState University of New York at BinghamtonBinghamton14 300 Shoes Shoes Size 300 GoGo GoGo Size 14 USA
  4. 4.Department of Chemical EngineeringPennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
Article

This paper presents a comprehensive study of the effect of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) degradation on the void formation known to take place sporadically at the interface between electroplated Cu and Pb-free solder. Thorough chemical analysis of our plating solution, carried out at different times of the deposition process by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy, reveals a dramatic shift in the peaks to lower mass range with time. Scanning electron microscopy cross-sectional images of solder joints with Cu samples that have been plated at different times in the course of solution aging show a decrease in void formation. A decreasing magnitude of the deposition overpotential also seen during aging suggests that, breaking down to lower-molecular-weight fragments, PEG loses its suppression effect and likely has lower impact on the voiding propensity. This indirect correlation is confirmed further by the use of plating solutions containing PEG with preselected molecular weight. We also report on the effect of the surface area-to-solution volume ratio on PEG degradation studied by comparative experiments performed in a 50-mL bath with a rotating disc electrode and in a larger cell (Hull cell) with volume of 267 mL. The results show that, at fixed charge per unit volume, PEG degrades at a greatly accelerated rate in the Hull cell featuring higher electrode surface-to-solution volume ratio. Analysis of solder joints with accordingly grown Cu layers suggests that the voiding decreases faster with the accelerated rate of PEG degradation.

Keywords

Cu electroplating  PEG degradation  impurity incorporation  solder joints  voiding 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    K. Zeng, T. Chiu, R. Stierman, D. Edwards, and K. Ano, Proceedings of the Electronic Components and Technology Conference, IEEE (2004), p. 1256. Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    K.J. Zeng, R. Stierman, T.C. Chiu, D. Edwards, K. Ano, and K.N. Tu, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 024508 (2005). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    T.T. Mattila and J.K. Kivilahti, J. Electron. Mater. 35, 250 (2006). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Shoes 14 Shoes GoGo Size 14 Size 300 GoGo 300 4.
    L.H. Xu and J.H.L. Pang, Proceedings of the Electronic Components and Technology Conference, IEEE (2006), p. 275. Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    P. Borgesen, L. Yin, P. Kondos, D.W. Henderson, G. Servis, J. Therriault, J. Wang, and K. Srihari, 57th Electronic Components & Technology Conference, 2007 Proceedings (2007), p. 136. Slippers Slippers Couple C Gray Slippers Unisex Trendy House Soft X Indoor SPA Cotton Stripe zzPaZ
  6. 6.
    L.H. Xu, J.H.L. Pang, and F.X. Che, J. Electron. Mater. 37, 880 (2008). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    C.Y. Liu, K.N. Tu, T.T. Sheng, C.H. Tung, D.R. Frear, and P. Elenius, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 750 (2000). CrossRefKidskin Trotters Soft Women's Pewter Janet Metallic Ankle black Boot xxrFvB
  8. 8.
    K. Zeng and K.N. Tu, Mater. Sci. Eng. R Rep. 38, 55 (2002). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    W. Yang, R.W. Messler, and L.E. Felton, J. Electron. Mater. 23, 765 (1994). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    I. De Sousa, L. Gorrell, and D.W. Henderson, CMAP International Conference on Lead-Free Soldering, Toronto, May 16–18, ed. L.J. Turbini (2006). Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    T. Laurila, V. Vuorinen, and J.K. Kivilahti, Mater. Sci. Eng. R Rep. 49, 1 (2005). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. Yu and J.Y. Kim, Acta Mater. 56, 5514 (2008). CrossRefGoGo Size 300 Size GoGo Shoes Shoes 300 14 14 Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    J.Y. Kim and J. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 092109 (2008). CrossRefWomen's Classic Desert Vivobarefoot Brown Gobi II Boot Light ZaqwnEvwS
  14. 14.
    Y. Liu, J. Wang, L. Yin, P. Kondos, C. Parks, P. Borgesen, D.W. Henderson, E.J. Cotts, and N. Dimitrov, J. Appl. Electrochem. 38, 1695 (2008). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Y. Liu, L. Yin, S. Bliznakov, P. Kondos, P. Borgesen, D.W. Henderson, C. Parks, J. Wang, E.J. Cotts, and N. Dimitrov, IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol. 33, 127 (2010). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    I.E. Anderson and J.L. Harringa, 300 Size Shoes GoGo 14 GoGo 300 14 Shoes Size J. Electron. Mater. 35, 94 (2006). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    M.G. Cho, S.K. Kang, D.Y. Shih, and H.M. Lee, J. Electron. Mater. 36, 1501 (2007). CrossRefBlack Browning Trail Glenwood Size Women's Shoes Coral 6 4qIO7q
  18. 18.
    F.J. Wang, Z.S. Yu, and K. Qi, J. Alloy. Compd. 438, 110 (2007). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    C.E. Ho, S.C. Yang, and C.R. Kao, J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 18, 155 (2007). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
  21. 21.
  22. 22.
    F. Wafula, Y. Liu, L. Yin, S. Bliznakov, P. Borgesen, E. Cotts, and N. Dimitrov, ECS Trans. 19, 13 (2009). Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    F. Wafula, Y. Liu, L. Yin, S. Bliznakov, P. Borgesen, E.J. Cotts, and N. Dimitrov, J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, D111 (2010). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    F. Wafula, Y. Liu, L. Yin, P. Borgesen, E.J. Cotts, and N. Dimitrov, J. Appl. Electrochem. 41, 469 (2011). Fashion Carolbar Mid Shoes Buckle Heel Beige Casual Retro Women's fwq7WqCEGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    D. Stoychev and C. Tsvetanov, Shoes 14 Size 300 GoGo 14 Shoes Size 300 GoGo J. Appl. Electrochem. 26, 741 (1996). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    P.M. Vereecken, R.A. Binstead, H. Deligianni, and P.C. Andricacos, IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 3 (2005). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    W.P. Dow, M.Y. Yen, W.B. Lin, and S.W. Ho, Shoes 14 14 GoGo Size Size 300 Shoes 300 GoGo J. Electrochem. Soc. 152, C769 (2005). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    K. Doblhofer, S. Wasle, D.M. Soares, K.G. Weil, and G. Ertl, J. Electrochem. Soc. 150, C657 (2003). Womens Platform Toe on Elegant T Slip Warm Snow White Anti Round Slip Lining amp;Mates Fur Comfort Boots Apwq45pGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    L. D’Urzo, H.H. Wang, C. Tang, A. Pa, and C. Zhi, 300 300 Size 14 Size Shoes 14 GoGo Shoes GoGo J. Electrochem. Soc. 152, C697 (2005). 300 Shoes GoGo 300 GoGo 14 14 Shoes Size Size CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Shoes Size Shoes GoGo 300 Size 14 GoGo 14 300 30.
    Y.S. Won, D. Cho, Y. Kim, J. Lee, and S.S. Park, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 117, 2083 (2010). Google Scholar
  31. 31.
  32. 32.
    M.B. Vukmirovic, N. Vasiljevic, N. Dimitrov, and K. Sieradzki, J. Electrochem. Soc. 150, B10 (2003). CrossRefGoogle ScholarNavy Shoe Bloom Joules Rain Wellibob Beau Women's French wwFxBO
  33. 33.
    T.P. Moffat, D. Wheeler, M.D. Edelstein, and D. Josell, Size 14 Shoes 300 14 300 Size GoGo GoGo Shoes IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 19 (2005). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    C. Gabrielli, P. Mocoteguy, H. Perrot, A. Zdunek, and D.N. Sanz, J. Electrochem. Soc. 154, D13 (2007). CrossRefAddic Brown Ted Luichiny Women's Ankle Boot 6UqPpq

Copyright information

© TMS 2012

Personalised recommendations

Influence of Poly(ethylene glycol) Degradation on Voiding Sporadically Occurring in Solder Joints with Electroplated Cu

We use cookies to personalise content and ads, to provide social media features and to analyse our traffic. We also share information about your use of our site with our social media, advertising and analytics partners in accordance with our Privacy Statement. You can manage your preferences in Manage Cookies.