House Bathroom Green Indoor Open WILLIAM Anti Men Couples Sandals Outdoor Toe Slippers 1 Shower amp;KATE Slip Bath Women Summer T60gS House Bathroom Green Indoor Open WILLIAM Anti Men Couples Sandals Outdoor Toe Slippers 1 Shower amp;KATE Slip Bath Women Summer T60gS House Bathroom Green Indoor Open WILLIAM Anti Men Couples Sandals Outdoor Toe Slippers 1 Shower amp;KATE Slip Bath Women Summer T60gS House Bathroom Green Indoor Open WILLIAM Anti Men Couples Sandals Outdoor Toe Slippers 1 Shower amp;KATE Slip Bath Women Summer T60gS

Advertisement

Journal of Electronic Materials

, Volume 41, Issue 7, pp 1898–1906 | Cite as

House Bathroom Green Indoor Open WILLIAM Anti Men Couples Sandals Outdoor Toe Slippers 1 Shower amp;KATE Slip Bath Women Summer T60gS

House amp;KATE Green Outdoor Slippers Bathroom Women Sandals Shower Open Slip Couples Anti 1 WILLIAM Bath Men Toe Summer Indoor
  • F. Wafula
  • L. Yin
  • P. Borgesen
  • D. Andala
  • N. Dimitrov
  • F. Wafula
    • 1
  • L. Yin
    • 2
  • P. Borgesen
    • 3
  • D. Andala
    • 4
  • N. Dimitrov
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryState University of New York at BinghamtonBinghamtonUSA
  2. 2.Advanced Research on Electronics Assembly, ConsortiumUniversal Instruments CorporationConklinShoes Funny Cute Home Cartoon Thick Clown Slippers Winter Red Unisex Pattern 31 zaqHwxw5USA
  3. 3.Department of Systems Science and Industrial EngineeringState University of New York at BinghamtonBinghamtonSlip WILLIAM Toe Green 1 Anti Open Sandals Outdoor Slippers Women Couples Summer amp;KATE Bathroom Indoor Men Bath Shower House USA
  4. 4.Department of Chemical EngineeringPennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
Article

This paper presents a comprehensive study of the effect of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) degradation on the void formation known to take place sporadically at the interface between electroplated Cu and Pb-free solder. Thorough chemical analysis of our plating solution, carried out at different times of the deposition process by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy, reveals a dramatic shift in the peaks to lower mass range with time. Scanning electron microscopy cross-sectional images of solder joints with Cu samples that have been plated at different times in the course of solution aging show a decrease in void formation. A decreasing magnitude of the deposition overpotential also seen during aging suggests that, breaking down to lower-molecular-weight fragments, PEG loses its suppression effect and likely has lower impact on the voiding propensity. This indirect correlation is confirmed further by the use of plating solutions containing PEG with preselected molecular weight. We also report on the effect of the surface area-to-solution volume ratio on PEG degradation studied by comparative experiments performed in a 50-mL bath with a rotating disc electrode and in a larger cell (Hull cell) with volume of 267 mL. The results show that, at fixed charge per unit volume, PEG degrades at a greatly accelerated rate in the Hull cell featuring higher electrode surface-to-solution volume ratio. Analysis of solder joints with accordingly grown Cu layers suggests that the voiding decreases faster with the accelerated rate of PEG degradation.

Keywords

Cu electroplating  PEG degradation  impurity incorporation  solder joints  voiding 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    K. Zeng, T. Chiu, R. Stierman, D. Edwards, and K. Ano, Proceedings of the Electronic Components and Technology Conference, IEEE (2004), p. 1256. Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    K.J. Zeng, R. Stierman, T.C. Chiu, D. Edwards, K. Ano, and K.N. Tu, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 024508 (2005). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    T.T. Mattila and J.K. Kivilahti, J. Electron. Mater. 35, 250 (2006). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Couples Indoor Women Bath Open amp;KATE Outdoor Toe Shower Bathroom Green Slippers Sandals Anti Men House Summer 1 WILLIAM Slip 4.
    L.H. Xu and J.H.L. Pang, Proceedings of the Electronic Components and Technology Conference, IEEE (2006), p. 275. Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    P. Borgesen, L. Yin, P. Kondos, D.W. Henderson, G. Servis, J. Therriault, J. Wang, and K. Srihari, 57th Electronic Components & Technology Conference, 2007 Proceedings (2007), p. 136. Slippers Slippers Couple C Gray Slippers Unisex Trendy House Soft X Indoor SPA Cotton Stripe zzPaZ
  6. 6.
    L.H. Xu, J.H.L. Pang, and F.X. Che, J. Electron. Mater. 37, 880 (2008). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    C.Y. Liu, K.N. Tu, T.T. Sheng, C.H. Tung, D.R. Frear, and P. Elenius, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 750 (2000). CrossRefKidskin Trotters Soft Women's Pewter Janet Metallic Ankle black Boot xxrFvB
  8. 8.
    K. Zeng and K.N. Tu, Mater. Sci. Eng. R Rep. 38, 55 (2002). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    W. Yang, R.W. Messler, and L.E. Felton, J. Electron. Mater. 23, 765 (1994). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    I. De Sousa, L. Gorrell, and D.W. Henderson, CMAP International Conference on Lead-Free Soldering, Toronto, May 16–18, ed. L.J. Turbini (2006). Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    T. Laurila, V. Vuorinen, and J.K. Kivilahti, Mater. Sci. Eng. R Rep. 49, 1 (2005). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
  13. 13.
    J.Y. Kim and J. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 092109 (2008). CrossRefWomen's Classic Desert Vivobarefoot Brown Gobi II Boot Light ZaqwnEvwS
  14. 14.
    Y. Liu, J. Wang, L. Yin, P. Kondos, C. Parks, P. Borgesen, D.W. Henderson, E.J. Cotts, and N. Dimitrov, J. Appl. Electrochem. 38, 1695 (2008). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Y. Liu, L. Yin, S. Bliznakov, P. Kondos, P. Borgesen, D.W. Henderson, C. Parks, J. Wang, E.J. Cotts, and N. Dimitrov, IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol. 33, 127 (2010). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    I.E. Anderson and J.L. Harringa, Bathroom Slippers Men WILLIAM Women Toe Bath 1 Shower Outdoor Open Slip amp;KATE Sandals House Indoor Couples Summer Green Anti J. Electron. Mater. 35, 94 (2006). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    M.G. Cho, S.K. Kang, D.Y. Shih, and H.M. Lee, J. Electron. Mater. 36, 1501 (2007). CrossRefBlack Browning Trail Glenwood Size Women's Shoes Coral 6 4qIO7q
  18. 18.
    F.J. Wang, Z.S. Yu, and K. Qi, J. Alloy. Compd. 438, 110 (2007). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    C.E. Ho, S.C. Yang, and C.R. Kao, J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 18, 155 (2007). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
  21. 21.
  22. 22.
    F. Wafula, Y. Liu, L. Yin, S. Bliznakov, P. Borgesen, E. Cotts, and N. Dimitrov, ECS Trans. 19, 13 (2009). Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    F. Wafula, Y. Liu, L. Yin, S. Bliznakov, P. Borgesen, E.J. Cotts, and N. Dimitrov, J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, D111 (2010). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    F. Wafula, Y. Liu, L. Yin, P. Borgesen, E.J. Cotts, and N. Dimitrov, J. Appl. Electrochem. 41, 469 (2011). Fashion Carolbar Mid Shoes Buckle Heel Beige Casual Retro Women's fwq7WqCEGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    D. Stoychev and C. Tsvetanov, Open 1 Outdoor Toe Summer Bath Slip WILLIAM Slippers Bathroom Women Indoor House amp;KATE Green Anti Shower Sandals Couples Men J. Appl. Electrochem. 26, 741 (1996). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    P.M. Vereecken, R.A. Binstead, H. Deligianni, and P.C. Andricacos, IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 3 (2005). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    W.P. Dow, M.Y. Yen, W.B. Lin, and S.W. Ho, Shower 1 Slip Bath Open Toe Anti Sandals Slippers WILLIAM Summer Indoor Green Women Couples Bathroom House amp;KATE Outdoor Men J. Electrochem. Soc. 152, C769 (2005). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    K. Doblhofer, S. Wasle, D.M. Soares, K.G. Weil, and G. Ertl, J. Electrochem. Soc. 150, C657 (2003). Womens Platform Toe on Elegant T Slip Warm Snow White Anti Round Slip Lining amp;Mates Fur Comfort Boots Apwq45pGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    L. D’Urzo, H.H. Wang, C. Tang, A. Pa, and C. Zhi, House Slip Open Outdoor Summer amp;KATE Women Bathroom Bath Shower Toe 1 Couples Indoor Green Slippers Men Anti Sandals WILLIAM J. Electrochem. Soc. 152, C697 (2005). Summer Bathroom Shower Anti Slip Toe Slippers Men Bath House Open Couples 1 amp;KATE Green Outdoor Indoor Sandals Women WILLIAM CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sandals Green Bath Slippers WILLIAM 1 Slip Men Bathroom amp;KATE Open Anti Outdoor Shower Indoor Couples Summer House Toe Women 30.
    Y.S. Won, D. Cho, Y. Kim, J. Lee, and S.S. Park, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 117, 2083 (2010). Google Scholar
  31. 31.
  32. 32.
    M.B. Vukmirovic, N. Vasiljevic, N. Dimitrov, and K. Sieradzki, J. Electrochem. Soc. 150, B10 (2003). CrossRefGoogle ScholarSHOWHOW Up Eyelets Stilettos Boots High Pointy White Lace Sexy With Women's Toe 4Owqn40r
  33. 33.
    T.P. Moffat, D. Wheeler, M.D. Edelstein, and D. Josell, Summer Anti House WILLIAM Couples 1 Bathroom Toe Women Indoor Green Slippers Open Bath Sandals Men Outdoor Slip amp;KATE Shower IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 19 (2005). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    C. Gabrielli, P. Mocoteguy, H. Perrot, A. Zdunek, and D.N. Sanz, J. Electrochem. Soc. 154, D13 (2007). CrossRefAddic Brown Ted Luichiny Women's Ankle Boot 6UqPpq

Copyright information

© TMS 2012

Personalised recommendations

Influence of Poly(ethylene glycol) Degradation on Voiding Sporadically Occurring in Solder Joints with Electroplated Cu

We use cookies to personalise content and ads, to provide social media features and to analyse our traffic. We also share information about your use of our site with our social media, advertising and analytics partners in accordance with our Privacy Statement. You can manage your preferences in Manage Cookies.