Albert Brown Low Heel Women's Ankle River Booties Charles zt10dBqBwn Albert Brown Low Heel Women's Ankle River Booties Charles zt10dBqBwn Albert Brown Low Heel Women's Ankle River Booties Charles zt10dBqBwn Albert Brown Low Heel Women's Ankle River Booties Charles zt10dBqBwn Albert Brown Low Heel Women's Ankle River Booties Charles zt10dBqBwn Albert Brown Low Heel Women's Ankle River Booties Charles zt10dBqBwn

Advertisement

Journal of Electronic Materials

, Volume 41, Issue 7, pp 1898–1906 | Cite as

Albert Brown Low Heel Women's Ankle River Booties Charles zt10dBqBwn

Booties Albert Charles River Heel Low Brown Women's Ankle
  • F. Wafula
  • L. Yin
  • P. Borgesen
  • D. Andala
  • N. Dimitrov
  • F. Wafula
    • 1
  • L. Yin
    • 2
  • P. Borgesen
    • 3
  • D. Andala
    • 4
  • N. Dimitrov
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryState University of New York at BinghamtonBinghamtonUSA
  2. 2.Advanced Research on Electronics Assembly, ConsortiumUniversal Instruments CorporationConklinWool Slipper Paw print Bear Yellow Grizzly Leopard Light Cartoon Warm Tonwhar Slippers zwx1nqXCUSA
  3. 3.Department of Systems Science and Industrial EngineeringState University of New York at BinghamtonBinghamtonWomen's Heel Ankle Brown Albert Low River Booties Charles USA
  4. 4.Department of Chemical EngineeringPennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
Article

This paper presents a comprehensive study of the effect of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) degradation on the void formation known to take place sporadically at the interface between electroplated Cu and Pb-free solder. Thorough chemical analysis of our plating solution, carried out at different times of the deposition process by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy, reveals a dramatic shift in the peaks to lower mass range with time. Scanning electron microscopy cross-sectional images of solder joints with Cu samples that have been plated at different times in the course of solution aging show a decrease in void formation. A decreasing magnitude of the deposition overpotential also seen during aging suggests that, breaking down to lower-molecular-weight fragments, PEG loses its suppression effect and likely has lower impact on the voiding propensity. This indirect correlation is confirmed further by the use of plating solutions containing PEG with preselected molecular weight. We also report on the effect of the surface area-to-solution volume ratio on PEG degradation studied by comparative experiments performed in a 50-mL bath with a rotating disc electrode and in a larger cell (Hull cell) with volume of 267 mL. The results show that, at fixed charge per unit volume, PEG degrades at a greatly accelerated rate in the Hull cell featuring higher electrode surface-to-solution volume ratio. Analysis of solder joints with accordingly grown Cu layers suggests that the voiding decreases faster with the accelerated rate of PEG degradation.

Keywords

Cu electroplating  PEG degradation  impurity incorporation  solder joints  voiding 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    K. Zeng, T. Chiu, R. Stierman, D. Edwards, and K. Ano, Proceedings of the Electronic Components and Technology Conference, IEEE (2004), p. 1256. Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    K.J. Zeng, R. Stierman, T.C. Chiu, D. Edwards, K. Ano, and K.N. Tu, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 024508 (2005). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    T.T. Mattila and J.K. Kivilahti, J. Electron. Mater. 35, 250 (2006). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. River Women's Charles Low Ankle Heel Brown Albert Booties 4.
    L.H. Xu and J.H.L. Pang, Proceedings of the Electronic Components and Technology Conference, IEEE (2006), p. 275. Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    P. Borgesen, L. Yin, P. Kondos, D.W. Henderson, G. Servis, J. Therriault, J. Wang, and K. Srihari, 57th Electronic Components & Technology Conference, 2007 Proceedings (2007), p. 136. Slippers Slippers Couple C Gray Slippers Unisex Trendy House Soft X Indoor SPA Cotton Stripe zzPaZ
  6. 6.
    L.H. Xu, J.H.L. Pang, and F.X. Che, J. Electron. Mater. 37, 880 (2008). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    C.Y. Liu, K.N. Tu, T.T. Sheng, C.H. Tung, D.R. Frear, and P. Elenius, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 750 (2000). CrossRefKidskin Trotters Soft Women's Pewter Janet Metallic Ankle black Boot xxrFvB
  8. 8.
    K. Zeng and K.N. Tu, Mater. Sci. Eng. R Rep. 38, 55 (2002). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    W. Yang, R.W. Messler, and L.E. Felton, J. Electron. Mater. 23, 765 (1994). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    I. De Sousa, L. Gorrell, and D.W. Henderson, CMAP International Conference on Lead-Free Soldering, Toronto, May 16–18, ed. L.J. Turbini (2006). Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    T. Laurila, V. Vuorinen, and J.K. Kivilahti, Mater. Sci. Eng. R Rep. 49, 1 (2005). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
  13. 13.
    J.Y. Kim and J. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 092109 (2008). CrossRefWomen's Classic Desert Vivobarefoot Brown Gobi II Boot Light ZaqwnEvwS
  14. 14.
    Y. Liu, J. Wang, L. Yin, P. Kondos, C. Parks, P. Borgesen, D.W. Henderson, E.J. Cotts, and N. Dimitrov, J. Appl. Electrochem. 38, 1695 (2008). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Y. Liu, L. Yin, S. Bliznakov, P. Kondos, P. Borgesen, D.W. Henderson, C. Parks, J. Wang, E.J. Cotts, and N. Dimitrov, IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol. 33, 127 (2010). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    I.E. Anderson and J.L. Harringa, Ankle Brown Women's Charles Albert Low Booties River Heel J. Electron. Mater. 35, 94 (2006). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    M.G. Cho, S.K. Kang, D.Y. Shih, and H.M. Lee, J. Electron. Mater. 36, 1501 (2007). CrossRefBlack Browning Trail Glenwood Size Women's Shoes Coral 6 4qIO7q
  18. 18.
    F.J. Wang, Z.S. Yu, and K. Qi, J. Alloy. Compd. 438, 110 (2007). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    C.E. Ho, S.C. Yang, and C.R. Kao, J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 18, 155 (2007). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
  21. 21.
  22. 22.
    F. Wafula, Y. Liu, L. Yin, S. Bliznakov, P. Borgesen, E. Cotts, and N. Dimitrov, ECS Trans. 19, 13 (2009). Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    F. Wafula, Y. Liu, L. Yin, S. Bliznakov, P. Borgesen, E.J. Cotts, and N. Dimitrov, J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, D111 (2010). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    F. Wafula, Y. Liu, L. Yin, P. Borgesen, E.J. Cotts, and N. Dimitrov, J. Appl. Electrochem. 41, 469 (2011). Fashion Carolbar Mid Shoes Buckle Heel Beige Casual Retro Women's fwq7WqCEGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    D. Stoychev and C. Tsvetanov, Ankle Low Albert Heel Booties Women's Charles River Brown J. Appl. Electrochem. 26, 741 (1996). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    P.M. Vereecken, R.A. Binstead, H. Deligianni, and P.C. Andricacos, IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 3 (2005). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    W.P. Dow, M.Y. Yen, W.B. Lin, and S.W. Ho, Ankle Heel Booties Women's Low Albert Charles River Brown J. Electrochem. Soc. 152, C769 (2005). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    K. Doblhofer, S. Wasle, D.M. Soares, K.G. Weil, and G. Ertl, J. Electrochem. Soc. 150, C657 (2003). Womens Platform Toe on Elegant T Slip Warm Snow White Anti Round Slip Lining amp;Mates Fur Comfort Boots Apwq45pGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    L. D’Urzo, H.H. Wang, C. Tang, A. Pa, and C. Zhi, Heel Albert Brown Charles River Booties Low Women's Ankle J. Electrochem. Soc. 152, C697 (2005). Heel River Albert Charles Low Ankle Women's Brown Booties CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ankle Low Women's River Albert Charles Brown Heel Booties 30.
    Y.S. Won, D. Cho, Y. Kim, J. Lee, and S.S. Park, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 117, 2083 (2010). Google Scholar
  31. 31.
  32. 32.
    M.B. Vukmirovic, N. Vasiljevic, N. Dimitrov, and K. Sieradzki, J. Electrochem. Soc. 150, B10 (2003). CrossRefGoogle ScholarShoes Leather Oxford Lace Rubber Women's Metallic Soles Gold Faux CAPE White Up ROBBIN YwzIqXHP
  33. 33.
    T.P. Moffat, D. Wheeler, M.D. Edelstein, and D. Josell, Charles Heel Ankle Women's Booties Albert Brown Low River IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 19 (2005). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    C. Gabrielli, P. Mocoteguy, H. Perrot, A. Zdunek, and D.N. Sanz, J. Electrochem. Soc. 154, D13 (2007). CrossRefAddic Brown Ted Luichiny Women's Ankle Boot 6UqPpq

Copyright information

© TMS 2012

Personalised recommendations

Influence of Poly(ethylene glycol) Degradation on Voiding Sporadically Occurring in Solder Joints with Electroplated Cu

We use cookies to personalise content and ads, to provide social media features and to analyse our traffic. We also share information about your use of our site with our social media, advertising and analytics partners in accordance with our Privacy Statement. You can manage your preferences in Manage Cookies.